Cancer is a disease in which cells become abnormal and form more cells in an uncontrolled way. With breast cancer, the cancer begins in the tissues that make up the breasts. The cancer cells may form a mass called a tumor. Getting a mammogram (x-ray of the breast) can help find the cancer early. This gives a woman more treatment options and makes it more likely she will survive the cancer.
Breast cancer is a leading cancer among Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women. Native Hawaiian and Samoan women are more likely to die from breast cancer than many other groups of U.S. women. We do not know why rates vary between different groups of women. A study that looked at breast cancer in the five major ethnic groups in Hawaii found that the tumors of Native Hawaiian women often are found at a later, more advanced stage, and at a younger age. We also know that Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander women have lower rates of breast cancer screening.
We do not know how to prevent breast cancer. But there are things you can do to reduce your risk, such as limiting how much alcohol you drink and being physically active.
There also are things you can do to find breast cancer early. Breast cancer screening looks for signs of cancer before a woman has symptoms. Screening can help find breast cancer early when it's most treatable. Two tests are commonly used to screen for breast cancer:
Mammograms. A safe, low-dose x-ray exam of the breasts to look for changes that are not normal. Starting at age 40, women should have screening mammograms every 1-2 years. Depending on factors such as family history and your general health, your doctor may recommend a mammogram before age 40.
Clinical breast exam (CBE). The doctor looks at and feels the breasts and under the arms for lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Ask your doctor if you need a CBE.
Regular screening is the best way to find breast cancer early in most women. If you are at higher risk you may need mammograms at an earlier age or more often. Or, your doctor might want to use other tests too. Let your doctor know if you find a change in your breast, such as a lump or nipple discharge that isn't breast milk.
Cancer Health Disparities - This on-line fact sheet gives a brief overview of the currently available data on cancer health disparities among racial and ethnic groups. It also summarizes some NCI research projects and initiatives designed to understand and eventually eliminate these disparities.
Mammograms - This fact sheet explains how screening mammograms differ from diagnostic mammograms. It also explains the benefits and limitations of screening mammography, as well as recommendations for when a woman should begin and how frequently she should have screening mammograms.
Understanding Breast Changes: A Health Guide for Women - This booklet explains normal, age-related breast changes you may experience throughout your life and how they differ from changes that indicate breast cancer. It also discusses mammograms and maintaining your breast health.